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Over the years, several allegations and conspiracy theories have been directed towards Freemasonry, including the allegation that Freemasons have a hidden political agenda and are conspiring to bring about a New World Order, a world government organized according to Masonic principles or governed only by Freemasons. The esoteric nature of Masonic symbolism and rites led to Freemasons first being accused of secretly practicing Satanism in the late 18th century.
Despite the fact that Taxil admitted that his claims were all a hoax , they were and still are believed and repeated by numerous conspiracy theorists and had a huge influence on subsequent anti-Masonic claims about Freemasonry. Some conspiracy theorists eventually speculated that some Founding Fathers of the United States , such as George Washington and Benjamin Franklin , were having Masonic sacred geometric designs interwoven into American society, particularly in the Great Seal of the United States , the United States one-dollar bill , the architecture of National Mall landmarks and the streets and highways of Washington, D.
Freemasons rebut these claims of a Masonic conspiracy. Freemasonry, which promotes rationalism , places no power in occult symbols themselves, and it is not a part of its principles to view the drawing of symbols, no matter how large, as an act of consolidating or controlling power.
Therefore, the designers were drawing from common esoteric symbols. Although the European continental branch of Freemasonry has organizations that allow political discussion within their Masonic Lodges, Masonic researcher Trevor W.
McKeown argues that the accusations ignore several facts. Firstly, the many Grand Lodges are independent and sovereign, meaning they act independently and do not have a common agenda. The points of belief of the various lodges often differ. Secondly, famous Freemasons have always held views that span the political spectrum and show no particular pattern or preference.
As such, the term “Masonic government” is erroneous; there is no consensus among Freemasons about what an ideal government would look like. The movement consisted of advocates of freethought , secularism , liberalism , republicanism , and gender equality , recruited from the German Masonic Lodges , who sought to teach rationalism through mystery schools.
In , the order was infiltrated, broken up, and suppressed by the government agents of Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria , in his preemptive campaign to neutralize the threat of secret societies ever becoming hotbeds of conspiracies to overthrow the Bavarian monarchy and its state religion , Roman Catholicism.
In the late 18th century, reactionary conspiracy theorists, such as Scottish physicist John Robison and French Jesuit priest Augustin Barruel , began speculating that the Illuminati had survived their suppression and become the masterminds behind the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
The Illuminati were accused of being subversives who were attempting to orchestrate a revolutionary wave secretly in Europe and the rest of the world to spread the most radical ideas and movements of the Enlightenment— anti-clericalism , anti-monarchism , and anti-patriarchalism —and to create a world noocracy and cult of reason.
During the 19th century, fear of an Illuminati conspiracy was a real concern of the European ruling classes , and their oppressive reactions to this unfounded fear provoked in the very revolutions they sought to prevent.
During the interwar period of the 20th century, fascist propagandists, such as British revisionist historian Nesta Helen Webster and American socialite Edith Starr Miller , not only popularized the myth of an Illuminati conspiracy but claimed that it was a subversive secret society which served the Jewish elites that supposedly propped up both finance capitalism and Soviet communism in order to divide and rule the world.
American evangelist Gerald Burton Winrod and other conspiracy theorists within the fundamentalist Christian movement in the United States—which emerged in the s as a backlash against the principles of Enlightenment secular humanism , modernism , and liberalism—became the main channel of dissemination of Illuminati conspiracy theories in the U.
Right-wing populists , such as members of the John Birch Society , subsequently began speculating that some collegiate fraternities Skull and Bones , gentlemen’s clubs Bohemian Club , and think tanks Council on Foreign Relations , Trilateral Commission of the American upper class are front organizations of the Illuminati, which they accuse of plotting to create a New World Order through a one-world government.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is an antisemitic canard , originally published in Russian in , alleging a Judeo-Masonic conspiracy to achieve world domination. The text purports to be the minutes of the secret meetings of a cabal of Jewish masterminds, which has co-opted Freemasonry and is plotting to rule the world on behalf of all Jews because they believe themselves to be the chosen people of God.
The Protocols reflect themes similar to more general critiques of Enlightenment liberalism by conservative aristocrats who support monarchies and state religions. The interpretation intended by the publication of The Protocols is that if one peels away the layers of the Masonic conspiracy , past the Illuminati , one finds the rotten Jewish core.
Numerous polemicists, such as Irish journalist Philip Graves in a article in The Times , and British academic Norman Cohn in his book Warrant for Genocide , have proven The Protocols to be both a hoax and a clear case of plagiarism.
There is general agreement that Russian-French writer and political activist Matvei Golovinski fabricated the text for Okhrana , the secret police of the Russian Empire , as a work of counter-revolutionary propaganda prior to the Russian Revolution , by plagiarizing, almost word for word in some passages, from The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu , a 19th-century satire against Napoleon III of France written by French political satirist and Legitimist militant Maurice Joly.
Responsible for feeding many antisemitic and anti-Masonic mass hysterias of the 20th century, The Protocols has been influential in the development of some conspiracy theories, including some New World Order theories, and repeatedly appears in certain contemporary conspiracy literature. They speculated that this secret society was working behind the scenes to establish a theocratic ” United States of Europe “. Politically and religiously unified through the imperial cult of a Merovingian Great Monarch —supposedly descended from a Jesus bloodline —who occupies both the throne of Europe and the Holy See , this “Holy European Empire” would become the hyperpower of the 21st century.
Skeptics argue that the current gambit of contemporary conspiracy theorists who use The Protocols is to claim that they “really” come from some group other than the Jews, such as fallen angels or alien invaders. Although it is hard to determine whether the conspiracy-minded actually believe this or are simply trying to sanitize a discredited text, skeptics argue that it does not make much difference, since they leave the actual, antisemitic text unchanged.
The result is to give The Protocols credibility and circulation. During the second half of Britain’s “imperial century” between and , English-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician Cecil Rhodes advocated the British Empire reannexing the United States of America and reforming itself into an ” Imperial Federation ” to bring about a hyperpower and lasting world peace.
In his first will, written in at the age of 23, he expressed his wish to fund a secret society known as the Society of the Elect that would advance this goal:.
In , thirteen years after “his now-famous will,” Rhodes elaborated on the same idea: establishment of “England everywhere,” which would “ultimately lead to the cessation of all wars, and one language throughout the world.
Rhodes also concentrated on the Rhodes Scholarship , which had British statesman Alfred Milner as one of its trustees. Established in , the original goal of the trust fund was to foster peace among the great powers by creating a sense of fraternity and a shared world view among future British, American, and German leaders by having enabled them to study for free at the University of Oxford.
Milner and British official Lionel George Curtis were the architects of the Round Table movement , a network of organizations promoting closer union between Britain and it’s self-governing colonies. To this end, Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in June and, with his book The Commonwealth of God , began advocating for the creation of an imperial federation that eventually reannexes the U.
The Council on Foreign Relations began in with a group of New York academics who were asked by President Woodrow Wilson to offer options for the foreign policy of the United States in the interwar period. Originally envisioned as a group of American and British scholars and diplomats, some of whom belonging to the Round Table movement, it was a subsequent group of New York financiers, manufacturers, and international lawyers organized in June by Nobel Peace Prize recipient and U.
The first of the council’s projects was a quarterly journal launched in September , called Foreign Affairs. It is a private organization established to foster closer cooperation among the United States, Europe, and Japan. In the s, right-wing populist individuals and groups with a paleoconservative worldview, such as members of the John Birch Society , were the first to combine and spread a business nationalist critique of corporate internationalists networked through think tanks such as the Council on Foreign Relations with a grand conspiracy theory casting them as front organizations for the Round Table of the “Anglo-American Establishment “, which are financed by an “international banking cabal” that has supposedly been plotting from the late 19th century on to impose an oligarchic new world order through a global financial system.
Anti- globalist conspiracy theorists therefore fear that international bankers are planning to eventually subvert the independence of the U. The research findings of historian Carroll Quigley , author of the book Tragedy and Hope , are taken by both conspiracy theorists of the American Old Right W. Cleon Skousen and New Left Carl Oglesby to substantiate this view, even though Quigley argued that the Establishment is not involved in a plot to implement a one-world government but rather British and American benevolent imperialism driven by the mutual interests of economic elites in the United Kingdom and the United States.
Quigley also argued that, although the Round Table still exists today , its position in influencing the policies of world leaders has been much reduced from its heyday during World War I and slowly waned after the end of World War II and the Suez Crisis. Today the Round Table is largely a ginger group , designed to consider and gradually influence the policies of the Commonwealth of Nations , but faces strong opposition. Furthermore, in American society after , the problem, according to Quigley, was that no elite was in charge and acting responsibly.
Larry McDonald , the second president of the John Birch Society and a conservative Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives who represented the 7th congressional district of Georgia , wrote a foreword for Allen ‘s book The Rockefeller File , wherein he claimed that the Rockefellers and their allies were driven by a desire to create a one-world government that combined “super- capitalism ” with communism and would be fully under their control.
He saw a conspiracy plot that was “international in scope, generations old in planning, and incredibly evil in intent. For more than a century, ideological extremists at either end of the political spectrum have seized upon well-publicized incidents Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as ‘internationalists’ and conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure—one world if you will.
If that’s the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it. Barkun argues that this statement is partly facetious the claim of “conspiracy” and ” treason ” and partly serious—the desire to encourage trilateral cooperation among the U. In a 13 November interview with Canadian journalist Benjamin Fulford, Rockefeller countered that he felt no need for a world government and wished for the world’s governments to work together and collaborate.
He also stated that it seemed neither likely nor desirable to have only one elected government rule worldwide. He criticized accusations of him being “ruler of the world” as nonsensical. Some American social critics , such as Laurence H. Shoup, argue that the Council on Foreign Relations is an ” imperial brain trust” which has, for decades, played a central behind-the-scenes role in shaping U.
William Domhoff , argue that it is in fact a mere policy discussion forum  which provides the business input to U. All the council does is sponsor discussion groups, debates, and speakers. As far as being secretive, it issues annual reports and allows access to its historical archives.
Wells promoted cosmopolitanism and offered blueprints for a world revolution and world brain to establish a technocratic world state and planned economy. Countless people When we attempt to evaluate its promise, we have to bear in mind the distress of a generation or so of malcontents, many of them quite gallant and graceful-looking people. Wells’s books were influential in giving a second meaning to the term ” new world order “, which would only be used by state socialist supporters and anti-communist opponents for generations to come.
However, despite the popularity and notoriety of his ideas, Wells failed to exert a deeper and more lasting influence because he was unable to concentrate his energies on a direct appeal to intelligentsias who would, ultimately, have to coordinate the Wellsian new world order.
British neo-Theosophical occultist Alice Bailey , one of the founders of the so-called New Age movement, prophesied in the eventual victory of the Allies of World War II over the Axis powers which occurred in and the establishment by the Allies of a political and religious New World Order. She saw a federal world government as the culmination of Wells’ Open Conspiracy but favorably argued that it would be synarchist because it was guided by the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom , intent on preparing humanity for the mystical second coming of Christ , and the dawning of the Age of Aquarius.
According to Bailey, a group of ascended masters called the Great White Brotherhood works on the ” inner planes ” to oversee the transition to the New World Order but, for now, the members of this Spiritual Hierarchy are only known to a few occult scientists, with whom they communicate telepathically , but as the need for their personal involvement in the plan increases, there will be an “Externalization of the Hierarchy” and everyone will know of their presence on Earth.
Bailey’s writings, along with American writer Marilyn Ferguson ‘s book The Aquarian Conspiracy , contributed to conspiracy theorists of the Christian right viewing the New Age movement as the ” false religion ” that would supersede Christianity in a New World Order. By this logic, anything that is not Christian is by definition actively and willfully anti-Christian.
Paradoxically, since the first decade of the 21st century, New World Order conspiracism is increasingly being embraced and propagandized by New Age occultists , who are people bored by rationalism and drawn to stigmatized knowledge —such as alternative medicine , astrology , quantum mysticism , spiritualism , and theosophy. Skeptics argue that the connection of conspiracy theorists and occultists follows from their common fallacious premises.
First, any widely accepted belief must necessarily be false. Second, stigmatized knowledge—what the Establishment spurns—must be true. The result is a large, self-referential network in which, for example, some UFO religionists promote anti-Jewish phobias while some antisemites practice Peruvian shamanism. Conspiracy theorists often use the term ” Fourth Reich ” simply as a pejorative synonym for the “New World Order” to imply that its state ideology and government will be similar to Germany’s Third Reich.
They cite the influence of ex-Nazi scientists brought in under Operation Paperclip to help advance aerospace manufacturing in the U. This neo-Nazi conspiracy is said to be animated by an “Iron Dream” in which the American Empire , having thwarted the Judeo-Masonic conspiracy and overthrown its Zionist Occupation Government , gradually establishes a Fourth Reich formerly known as the “Western Imperium”—a pan – Aryan world empire modeled after Adolf Hitler ‘s New Order —which reverses the ” decline of the West ” and ushers a golden age of white supremacy.
Skeptics argue that conspiracy theorists grossly overestimate the influence of ex-Nazis and neo-Nazis on American society and point out that political repression at home and imperialism abroad have a long history in the United States that predates the 20th century. Some political scientists, such as Sheldon Wolin , have expressed concern that the twin forces of democratic deficit and superpower status have paved the way in the U.
Since the late s, extraterrestrials from other habitable planets or parallel dimensions such as ” Greys ” and intraterrestrials from Hollow Earth such as ” Reptilians ” have been included in the New World Order conspiracy, in more or less dominant roles, as in the theories put forward by American writers Stan Deyo and Milton William Cooper , and British writer David Icke.
The common theme in these conspiracy theories is that aliens have been among us for decades, centuries or millennia. Still, a government cover-up enforced by ” Men in Black ” has shielded the public from knowledge of a secret alien invasion. Motivated by speciesism and imperialism , these aliens have been and are secretly manipulating developments and changes in human society to more efficiently control and exploit human beings.
In some theories, alien infiltrators have shapeshifted into human form and move freely throughout human society , even to the point of taking control of command positions in governmental, corporate, and religious institutions, and are now in the final stages of their plan to take over the world.
Skeptics, who adhere to the psychosocial hypothesis for unidentified flying objects , argue that the convergence of New World Order conspiracy theory and UFO conspiracy theory is a product of not only the era’s widespread mistrust of governments and the popularity of the extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs but of the far right and ufologists joining forces.
Barkun notes that the only positive side to this development is that, if conspirators plotting to rule the world are believed to be aliens, traditional human scapegoats Freemasons , Illuminati , Jews , etc. Antiscience and neo-Luddite conspiracy theorists emphasize technology forecasting in their New World Order conspiracy theories. They speculate that the global power elite are reactionary modernists pursuing a transhumanist plan to develop and use human enhancement technologies to become a ” posthuman ruling caste “, while change accelerates toward a technological singularity —a theorized future point of discontinuity when events will accelerate at such a pace that normal unenhanced humans will be unable to predict or even understand the rapid changes occurring in the world around them.
Conspiracy theorists fear the outcome will either be the emergence of a Brave New World -like dystopia —a “Brave New World Order”—or the extinction of the human species. Democratic transhumanists , such as American sociologist James Hughes , counter that many influential members of the United States establishment are bioconservatives strongly opposed to human enhancement , as demonstrated by President Bush’s Council on Bioethics ‘s proposed international treaty prohibiting human cloning and germline engineering.
Furthermore, he argues that conspiracy theorists underestimate how fringe the transhumanist movement really is. Just as there are several overlapping or conflicting theories among conspiracists about the nature of the New World Order, so are there several beliefs about how its architects and planners will implement it:.
Conspiracy theorists generally speculate that the New World Order is being implemented gradually , citing the formation of the U. An increasingly popular conspiracy theory among American right-wing populists is that the hypothetical North American Union and the amero currency , proposed by the Council on Foreign Relations and its counterparts in Mexico and Canada , will be the next milestone in the implementation of the New World Order.
The theory holds that a group of shadowy and mostly nameless international elites is planning to replace the federal government of the United States with a transnational government. Therefore, conspiracy theorists believe the borders between Mexico, Canada, and the United States are in the process of being erased, covertly, by a group of globalists whose ultimate goal is to replace national governments in Washington, D.
Skeptics argue that the North American Union exists only as a proposal contained in one of a thousand academic and policy papers published each year that advocate all manner of idealistic but ultimately unrealistic approaches to social, economic, and political problems.
Most of these are passed around in their circles and eventually filed away and forgotten by junior staffers in congressional offices. However, some of these papers become touchstones for the conspiracy-minded and form the basis of all kinds of unfounded xenophobic fears, especially during times of economic anxiety. For example, in March , as a result of the lates financial crisis , the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation pressed for urgent consideration of a new international reserve currency and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development proposed greatly expanding the I.
Conspiracy theorists fear these proposals are a call for the U. Judging that both national governments and global institutions have proven ineffective in addressing global problems that go beyond the capacity of individual nation-states to solve, some political scientists critical of New World Order conspiracism, such as Mark C.
Partridge, argue that regionalism will be the major force in the coming decades, pockets of power around regional centers: Western Europe around Brussels, the Western Hemisphere around Washington, D. As such, the E. The question then is not whether global governance is gradually emerging, but rather how will these regional powers interact with one another. Following the Rex 84 and Operation Garden Plot plans, this military coup would involve the suspension of the Constitution , the imposition of martial law , and the appointment of military commanders to head state and local governments and to detain dissidents.
These conspiracy theorists, who are all strong believers in a right to keep and bear arms , are extremely fearful that the passing of any gun control legislation will be later followed by the abolishment of personal gun ownership and a campaign of gun confiscation, and that the refugee camps of emergency management agencies such as FEMA will be used for the internment of suspected subversives , making little effort to distinguish true threats to the New World Order from pacifist dissidents.
Before , some survivalists wrongly believed this process would be set in motion by the predicted Y2K problem causing societal collapse.
Skeptics argue that unfounded fears about an imminent or eventual gun ban, military coup, internment, or U. Conspiracy theorists concerned with surveillance abuse believe that the New World Order is being implemented by the cult of intelligence at the core of the surveillance-industrial complex through mass surveillance and the use of Social Security numbers , the bar-coding of retail goods with Universal Product Code markings, and, most recently, RFID tagging by microchip implants.
Claiming that corporations and government are planning to track every move of consumers and citizens with RFID as the latest step toward a -like surveillance state , consumer privacy advocates, such as Katherine Albrecht and Liz McIntyre ,  have become Christian conspiracy theorists who believe spychips must be resisted because they argue that modern database and communications technologies , coupled with point of sale data-capture equipment and sophisticated ID and authentication systems, now make it possible to require a biometrically associated number or mark to make purchases.
They fear that the ability to implement such a system closely resembles the Number of the Beast prophesied in the Book of Revelation. Following public criticism that the development and deployment of these technologies could potentially lead to a mass surveillance system, the IAO was defunded by the United States Congress in Although DARPA eventually removed the logo from its website, it left a lasting impression on privacy advocates.
American historian Richard Landes , who specialized in the history of apocalypticism and was co-founder and director of the Center for Millennial Studies at Boston University, argues that new and emerging technologies often trigger alarmism among millenarians. Even the introduction of Gutenberg’s printing press in caused waves of apocalyptic thinking. The Year problem , bar codes, and Social Security numbers all triggered end-time warnings which either proved to be false or were no longer taken seriously once the public became accustomed to these technological changes.
Conspiracy theorists of the Christian right , starting with British revisionist historian Nesta Helen Webster , believe there is an ancient occult conspiracy—started by the first mystagogues of Gnosticism and perpetuated by their alleged esoteric successors, such as the Kabbalists , Cathars , Knights Templar , Hermeticists , Rosicrucians , Freemasons , and, ultimately, the Illuminati —which seeks to subvert the Judeo-Christian foundations of the Western world and implement the New World Order through a one-world religion that prepares the masses to embrace the imperial cult of the Antichrist.
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CBS Broadcasting, Inc. It is also sometimes referred to as the Eye Network , in reference to the company’s trademark symbol, in use since The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc.
They installed Paley, an in-law of the Levys, as president of the network. With the Columbia record label out of ownership, Paley rebranded the network as the Columbia Broadcasting System.
In , Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation through the spin-off of its broadcast television, radio and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets, with the CBS network at its core. The television network has over owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States, some also available in Canada via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air.
CBS was ranked th on the Fortune of the largest American corporations by revenue. In April of that year, the Columbia Phonograph Company, parent of Columbia Records , invested in the network, resulting in its rebranding as the Columbia Phonographic Broadcasting System.
They installed William S. Paley , an in-law of the Levys, as president of the network. CBS ventured and expanding horizons through television starting in the s, spinning-off its broadcast syndication division Viacom to a separate company in In , CBS was sold to Viacom the same company that the network spun-off earlier in , and had acquired Paramount Pictures in The network provides 22 hours of primetime programming to affiliated stations Monday through Saturday from to p.
Eastern and Pacific time — p. Monday through Saturday and — p. The network also provides daytime programming from a. CBS Sports programming is also provided most weekend afternoons. Due to the unpredictable length of sporting events, CBS occasionally delays scheduled primetime programs to allow the programs to air in their entirety, a practice most commonly seen with Sunday Night Football.
It is the home of the long-running game show The Price Is Right , which began production in and is the longest continuously running daytime game show on network television. After being hosted by Bob Barker for 35 years, the show has been hosted since by actor and comedian Drew Carey.
The network is also home to the current incarnation of Let’s Make a Deal , hosted by singer and comedian Wayne Brady. CBS is the only commercial broadcast network that continues to broadcast daytime game shows.
Past game shows that have had both daytime and prime time runs on the network include Beat the Clock , To Tell the Truth , and Password. Two long-running primetime-only games were the panel shows What’s My Line? It debuted in October CBS Daytime airs two daytime soap operas each weekday: the hour-long series The Young and the Restless , which debuted in , and the half-hour series The Bold and the Beautiful , which debuted in CBS broadcast the live-action series Captain Kangaroo on weekday mornings from to , and on Saturdays until From to , CBS News produced a series of one-minute segments titled In the News , which aired between other Saturday morning programs.
In September , CBS began contracting the time period out to other companies to provide programming and material for its Saturday morning schedule. After its agreement with Nelvana ended, the network then entered into a deal with Nickelodeon to air programming from its Nick Jr.
From to , live-action and animated Nickelodeon series aimed at older children also aired as part of the block under the name Nick on CBS. In March , CBS entered into a three-year agreement with DIC Entertainment , which was acquired later that year by the Cookie Jar Group , to program the Saturday morning time slot as part of a deal that included distribution of select tape-delayed Formula One auto races.
On February 24, , it was announced that CBS would renew its contract with Cookie Jar for another three seasons through On July 24, , CBS entered into an agreement with Litton Entertainment , which already programmed a syndicated Saturday morning block exclusive to ABC stations and would later produce a block for CBS sister network The CW that would debut the following year, to launch a new Saturday morning block featuring live-action reality-based lifestyle, wildlife, and sports series.
CBS was the original broadcast network home of the animated primetime holiday specials based on the Peanuts comic strip, beginning with A Charlie Brown Christmas in Over 30 holiday Peanuts specials each for a specific holiday such as Halloween were broadcast on CBS until , when the broadcast rights were acquired by ABC. CBS also aired several primetime animated specials based on the works of Dr.
Seuss Theodor Geisel , beginning with How the Grinch Stole Christmas in , as well as several specials based on the Garfield comic strip during the s which led to Garfield getting his own Saturday morning cartoon on the network, Garfield and Friends , which ran from to All of these animated specials, from to , began with a fondly remembered seven-second animated opening sequence, in which the words “A CBS Special Presentation” were displayed in colorful lettering the ITC Avant Garde typeface, widely used in the s, was used for the title logo.
The word “SPECIAL”, in all caps and repeated multiple times in multiple colors, slowly zoomed out from the frame in a spinning counterclockwise motion against a black background, and rapidly zoomed back into frame as a single word, in white, at the end; the sequence was accompanied by a jazzy though majestic up-tempo fanfare with dramatic horns and percussion which was edited incidental music from the CBS crime drama Hawaii Five-O , titled “Call to Danger” on the Capitol Records soundtrack LP.
This opening sequence appeared immediately before all CBS specials of the period such as the Miss USA pageants and the annual presentation of the Kennedy Center Honors , in addition to animated specials this opening was presumably designed by or under the supervision of longtime CBS creative director Lou Dorfsman , who oversaw print and on-air graphics for CBS for nearly 30 years, replacing William Golden , who died in Telecast every few months between and , first in black-and-white and then in color beginning in , these programs introduced millions of children to classical music through the eloquent commentaries of Bernstein.
The specials were nominated for several Emmy Awards , including two wins in and later in ,  and were among the first programs ever broadcast from the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. Over the years, CBS has broadcast three different productions of Tchaikovsky’s ballet The Nutcracker — two live telecasts of the George Balanchine New York City Ballet production in and respectively, a little-known German-American filmed production in which was subsequently repeated three times and starred Edward Villella , Patricia McBride and Melissa Hayden , and beginning in , the Mikhail Baryshnikov staging of the ballet, starring the Russian dancer along with Gelsey Kirkland — a version that would become a television classic, and remains so today the broadcast of this production later moved to PBS.
In April , CBS presented a slightly abbreviated version of Horowitz in Moscow , a live piano recital by pianist Vladimir Horowitz , which marked his return to Russia after over 60 years. Eastern Time in the U. It was so successful that CBS repeated it a mere two months later by popular demand, this time on videotape, rather than live. In later years, the program was shown as a standalone special on PBS ; the current DVD of the telecast omits the commentary by Charles Kuralt , but includes additional selections not heard on the CBS telecast.
The program was a concert commemorating the re-opening of Carnegie Hall after its complete renovation. A range of artists were featured, from classical conductor Leonard Bernstein to popular music singer Frank Sinatra.
Based upon the classic Charles Perrault fairy tale , it is the only Rodgers and Hammerstein musical to have been written for television. It was originally broadcast live in color on CBS on March 31, , as a vehicle for Julie Andrews , who played the title role; that broadcast was seen by over million people. It was subsequently remade by CBS in , with Lesley Ann Warren, Stuart Damon, Ginger Rogers , and Walter Pidgeon among its stars; the remake also included the new song “Loneliness of Evening”, which was originally composed in for South Pacific but was not performed in that musical.
CBS was also the original broadcast home for the primetime specials produced by the National Geographic Society. The Geographic series in the U.
The specials have featured stories on many scientific figures such as Louis Leakey , Jacques Cousteau and Jane Goodall , that not only featured their work but helped make them internationally known and accessible to millions. A majority of the specials were narrated by various actors, notably Alexander Scourby during the CBS run. The success of the specials led in part to the creation of the National Geographic Channel , a cable channel launched in January as a joint venture between the National Geographic Society and Fox Cable Networks.
The specials’ distinctive theme music, by Elmer Bernstein , was also adopted by the National Geographic Channel. The Miss USA beauty pageant aired on CBS from to ; during a large portion of that period, the telecast was often emceed by the host of one of the network’s game shows.
John Charles Daly hosted the show from to , succeeded by Bob Barker from to at which point Barker, an animal rights activist who eventually convinced producers of The Price Is Right to cease offering fur coats as prizes on the program, quit in a dispute over their use , Alan Thicke in , Dick Clark from to , and Bob Goen from to The pageant’s highest viewership was recorded in the early s, when it regularly topped the Nielsen ratings on the week of its broadcast.
On June 1, , it was announced that Elvis Presley had signed a deal with CBS to appear in a new television special. Since their inception in , CBS has been the sole broadcaster of The Kennedy Center Honors , a two-hour performing arts tribute typically taped and edited in December for later broadcast during the holiday season.
CBS has 15 owned-and-operated stations, and current and pending affiliation agreements with additional television stations encompassing 51 states, the District of Columbia, two U. Vincent and the Grenadines. CBS provides video on demand access for delayed viewing of the network’s programming through various means, including via its website at CBS. Upon the release of the app in March , CBS restricted streaming of the most recent episode of any of the network’s program on its streaming app for Apple iOS devices until eight days after their initial broadcast in order to encourage live or same-week via both DVR and cable on demand viewing; programming selections on the app were limited until the release of its Google Play and Windows 8 apps in October , expanded the selections to include full episodes of all CBS series to which the network does not license the streaming rights to other services.
CBS All Access offers the most recent episodes of the network’s shows the day after their original broadcast, as well as complete back catalogs of most of its current series and a wide selection of episodes of classic series from the CBS Television Distribution and ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks program library, to subscribers of the service.
In December , the service was launched in Australia under the name 10 All Access , due to its affiliation with CBS-owned free to air broadcaster Network Due to local programming rights, not all content is shared with its US counterpart, whilst the Australian version also features numerous full seasons of local Network 10 shows, all commercial-free. The name was also extended to international markets and services such as 10 All Access.
CBS’s master feed is transmitted in i high definition , the native resolution format for CBS Corporation’s television properties. However, seven of its affiliates transmit the network’s programming in p HD, while seven others carry the network feed in i standard definition  either due to technical considerations for affiliates of other major networks that carry CBS programming on a digital subchannel or because a primary feed CBS affiliate has not yet upgraded their transmission equipment to allow content to be presented in HD.
The network gradually converted much of its existing programming from standard definition to high definition beginning with the —01 season , with select shows among that season’s slate of freshmen scripted series being broadcast in HD starting with their debuts.
CBS’s year conversion to an entirely high definition schedule ended in , with Big Brother and Let’s Make a Deal becoming the final two series to convert from standard definition to HD in contrast, NBC, Fox and The CW were already airing their entire programming schedules — outside of Saturday mornings — in high definition by the —11 season, while ABC was broadcasting its entire schedule in HD by the —12 midseason.
All of the network’s programming has been presented in full HD since then with the exception of certain holiday specials produced prior to — such as the Rankin-Bass specials — which continue to be presented in SD, although some have been remastered for HD broadcast. On September 1, , when ABC converted to a widescreen presentation, CBS and The CW were the only remaining networks that framed their promotions and on-screen graphical elements for a presentation, though with CBS Sports’ de facto conversion with Super Bowl 50 and their new graphical presentation designed for framing, in practice, most CBS affiliates ask pay-TV providers to pass down a widescreen presentation by default over their standard definition channels.
This continued for CBS until September 24, , when the network converted its on-screen graphical elements to a widescreen presentation for all non-news and sports programs. Litton Entertainment continues to frame the graphical elements in their programs for Dream Team within a frame due to them being positioned for future syndicated sales, though all of its programming has been in high definition. The CBS television network’s initial logo, used from the s to , consisted of an oval spotlight which shone on the block letters “CBS”.
While the logo is commonly attributed to Golden, some design work may have been done by CBS staff designer Georg Olden , one of the first African-Americans to attract some attention in the postwar graphic design field.
The following season, as Golden prepared a new “ident”, CBS President Frank Stanton insisted on keeping the Eye device and using it as much as possible. Golden died unexpectedly in , and was replaced by Lou Dorfsman , one of his top assistants, who would go on to oversee all print and on-air graphics for CBS for the next 30 years.
The CBS eye has since become a widely recognized symbol. While the logo has been used in different ways, the Eye device itself has not been redesigned in its history. In October , the network celebrated the 60th anniversary of the introduction of the Eye logo, featuring special IDs of logo versions from previous CBS image campaigns being shown during the network’s primetime lineup. CBS historically used a specially-commissioned variant of Didot , a close relative to Bodoni , as its corporate font until CBS has developed several notable image campaigns, and several of the network’s most well-known slogans were introduced in the s.
The “Reach for the Stars” campaign used during the —82 season features a space theme to capitalize on both CBS’s stellar improvement in the ratings and the historic launch of the space shuttle Columbia. Vocals for the campaign’s jingle were contributed by Richie Havens —84; one occasion in —85 and Kenny Rogers — The —87 season ushered in the “Share the Spirit of CBS” campaign, the network’s first to completely use computer graphics and digital video effects.
Unlike most network campaign promos, the full-length version of “Share the Spirit” not only showed a brief clip preview of each new fall series, but also utilized CGI effects to map out the entire fall schedule by night. Like its predecessor, most “CBSpirit” promos utilized a procession of clips from the network’s programs. However, the new graphic motif was a swirling or “swishing” blue line that was used to represent “the spirit”.
The full-length promo, like the previous year, had a special portion that identified new fall shows, but the mapped-out fall schedule shot was abandoned. The goal was to convey a more sensual, new-age image through distinguished, advanced-looking computer graphics and soothing music, backgrounding images and clips of emotionally powerful scenes and characters. However, it was this season in which CBS saw its ratings freefall, the deepest in the network’s history.